The English text of the protocol, signed in New Delhi on 11 April 2005, is on the bilateral/multilateral documents page of the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MEA). A copy and summary of the protocol can also be accessed in the UNITED Nations Peacemakers Database and the AP-X Peace Agreement database. The aim of the protocol is to implement previous agreements and “modalities for implementing confidence-building measures, including through procedures for exchanging information on troop movements and holding semi-annual meetings on border issues.” They also agreed to resolve by diplomatic means any violation of the treaty or a solution. The two countries are divided over the delimitation of several border areas of the Himalayas and fought a brief war in 1962. From time to time, tensions continue to flare up. Signed in New Delhi on January 17, 2012, available in the Chinese MFA contract base in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian MEA database on Indian contracts. Both sides agreed to establish the WMCC to address important border issues related to peacekeeping and calm in the border regions of India and China. (Article 1) The WMCC will be led by an Indian MEA official at the joint secretaries level and an official at the executive level of the Chinese AMF and will be composed of diplomatic and military officials from both sides. (Article 2) The non-resolution of the border conflict led to the Salino-Indian war in 1962 and there was no definitive agreement between the countries on the exact location of the LAC. According to Alyssa Ayres, South Asia specialist at the Council on Foreign Relations, “China and India have different views of where they should be, resulting in regular border crossings.
Often these tensions do not escalate; A serious border demarcation situation, such as the one we have at the moment, is less common, although it is the fourth since 2013. “China and India are two ancient civilizations. Our two peoples have wisdom and our two governments have the ability to manage our disputes along the border so that they do not harm the general interests of our bilateral relations,” the Chinese leader added. Signed in New Delhi on April 11, 2005, available in the Chinese AMF contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian treatment base MEA. Article 1 states that “differences in the issue of borders should not affect the overall development of bilateral relations. Both sides will resolve the border issue through peaceful and friendly consultations. Signing in Beijing, October 23, 2013. An English text of the agreement can be found in the Media Centre of the Indian MEA as well as in the UN Peace Database.
According to Ankit Panda of The Diplomat, the 10-article agreement lists several mechanisms to reduce misunderstandings and improve communication between the two countries along their controversial border. Article VI expressly prohibits one party from actively tracking or following another party`s patrols. Articles VI, VII and VIII explicitly describe dispute resolution procedures in “areas where there is no common understanding of the effective line of control.” Before Singh`s visit to China, I wrote a rather critical piece for The Diplomat, in which I argued that the way India resolved the crisis was strategically reckless. Other commentators argued that India`s strategy towards China was more nuanced than it could appear at first glance. In reality, the BDCA could do little to reduce the likelihood of a border dispute between India and China along the LoAC, but in the end, the agreement appears to be in India`s interest.