//Straits Agreement

Straits Agreement

Although the British and French tried to limit Russian claims, they were unable to do so and also had to face the possibility of Russia concluding a separate peace with the middle powers. [19] The agreement was part of a series of agreements dividing the Ottoman Empire by the Triple Entente and Italy after the war, including the Treaty of London (1915), the Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916) and the Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Agreement (April to August 1917). From March 4 to April 10, 1915, the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia) secretly discussed how the countries of the Ottoman Empire were to be distributed. Britain would have to control an even larger area in Iran, while Russia would get Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. The Dardanelles were also promised to Russia. The language of the agreement described the following limitations: the Straits Convention was an agreement between the great powers to strengthen the Ottoman Empire. [3] It was born from the old Treaty of Dardanelles, signed in 1809 between Great Britain and the Ottomans. Access to the Turkish Strait was governed by the London Convention of 1841, which established the closure of the strait to warships[4] and, after the Crimean War, by the Treaty of Paris (1856), which made universal the principle of commercial freedom while prohibiting any militarization in and around the Black Sea. Later amended by the Treaty of London (1871) and reaffirmed in the Treaty of Berlin (1878). The review conference was held on 22 June in Montreux, Switzerland. All Lausanne signatories were represented, with the exception of Italy, which refused to send a delegation as long as sanctions were in place and Britain retained its mutual aid agreements in the Eastern Mediterranean.

From the beginning, it was clear that there would be a new convention, that commercial freedom would be guaranteed and that Turkey would have the right to remilitarize the strait; But there have been fundamental differences, particularly between Britain and the continental powers, over Turkey`s right to close the strait. At the beginning of the conference, Turkish Foreign Minister Tevfik Rushdi Aras presented a project that abolished the Strait Commission and definitively placed the area under the full sovereignty of Turkey, with the right to closure. The project guaranteed free trade, but remilita the strait. Non-riparian powers were limited to 14,000 tons of warships in the strait and 28,000 tons in the Black Sea. Submarines and civil and military aircraft were completely excluded from the strait. The British Gallipoli campaign (1915-16) aimed to occupy the Dardanelles and Constantinople, but was defeated by the Ottomans, and the Allies did not gain control of the area until they occupied it in November 1918, after the end of the war. At that time, the Communist Bolsheviks had taken power in Russia during the October Revolution of 1917 and in March 1918 had signed a separate peace with the middle powers that was emerging from the war. [20] Since the Allies no longer counted Russia among their numbers and did not even recognize the legitimacy of the Bolshevik government, the agreement was never implemented. The straits were on Turkish territory, but when Russia took control of the northern black sea coast in the eighteenth century, the Ottoman government granted free passage to Russian merchant ships. To protect themselves from attacks from the South, after defeating the Turks in 1833, Russia asked them to make an agreement to close the strait at Russia`s request to warships of non-Black Sea powers (the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi).

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Von | 2021-10-09T13:24:33+00:00 Oktober 9th, 2021|Allgemein|0 Kommentare